Chamblee54

Monroe Drive Or Boulevard

Posted in Georgia History, GSU photo archive by chamblee54 on July 15, 2018

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It is an Atlanta cliche. Boulevard turns into Monroe Drive because one was black, and the other white. The white people did not want to live on a street with the same name as the black neighborhood. You hear this all the time, with very little explanation. It is plausible. At one time, Ponce de Leon Avenue was a dividing line between the white, and black, neighborhoods. There are, however, a few questions about this name change business. This is a repost.

In the space between I-85 and Dekalb County, there are four streets that change names when they cross Ponce De Leon Avenue. These are Juniper/Courtland, Charles Allen/Parkway, Monroe/Boulevard, and Briarcliff/Moreland. Several streets cross Ponce without changing names, including Spring Street, Peachtree Street, Piedmont Avenue, and North Highland Avenue.

Four thoroughfares are affected by the Ponce rebranding. Juniper/Courtland is mostly commercial, at least south of Ponce. Briarcliff/Moreland is mostly white until you get to the railroad tracks south of Little Five Points. When Moreland Avenue goes under the MARTA line, the neighborhood is Reynoldstown….which was not named for Burt Reynolds.

Charles Allen/Parkway does change from white to black at Ponce. The street name then changes to Jackson Street, the original name, at Highland Avenue. Monroe/Boulevard also goes from white to black at Ponce. However, when you cross the railroad tracks, Boulevard goes through Cabbagetown, a white neighborhood. Boulevard residents change color several times before the road dead ends at the Federal Prison. Oakland Cemetery, and Zoo Atlanta, do not play a role in this drama.

If this litany of street names is boring, it is all right to skip over the text. The pictures today are from “The Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library”.

Roads change names all over the metro area, for a variety of reasons. In the area between Ponce De Leon Avenue and I 20, there are roads that change at railroad tracks (North Highland/Highland, Krog/Estoria.) Others change at Highland Avenue (Parkway/Jackson, Glen Iris/Randolph) or Decatur Street (Hilliard/Grant, Bell/Hill.) Some of these changes are racially motivated, while others are not. Some make sense, while most do not.

No one seems to know when this Monroe/Boulevard thing happened. An 1892 “Bird’s eye view” shows Boulevard sailing off into the horizon, past a racetrack in today’s Piedmont Park. A 1911 map shows Boulevard starting near “L.P. Grant Park,” and sailing past Ponce up to Piedmont Park. A 1940 map shows Boulevard going past Park Drive, only to turn into Monroe Drive at Montgomery Ferry Road. Finally, a 1969 map of “Negro Residential Areas” shows Monroe Drive changing into Boulevard at Ponce De Leon Avenue, like it is today. Boulevard is a stand alone street name at all times.

If anyone knows about this name change business, please leave a comment. It would be interesting to know when these changes were made, and what government agency made them. Google has not been helpful, except for pointing the way to several map collections.

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Home Churched

Posted in Georgia History, GSU photo archive, Religion by chamblee54 on July 5, 2018

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A poem appeared at Chamblee54 yesterday. The pictures were from a photo mural on North Avenue. There were two people in each shot, with a white bar in the middle. The text was adjusted, so that the white bar was a compliment, rather than a distraction. The result was G-d Doesnot Write Books.

There are 20 words used: my thoughts are my business ~ practice outweigh beliefs ~ g-d doesnot write books ~ thought about jesus doesnot ~ affect life after death.

The text comes from a post, at a blog called 22 Words. At the time, comments at 22 words were limited to 22 words. 22w is much more *commercial* now. Here is the story.

Abraham at twentytwowords wrote… “When I asked about churches last week, some of you reminded me you’re not Christian.So…Non-Christian readers, what (non)religion are you?” That is 23 words.

PG answered the original post “home churched”. He decided to answer the follow up question. Unlike most of the others to answer, PG wanted to keep this under 22 words. … PG decided that this label thing was not going to work. Labels belong on jars, and PG’s hair is a half inch over jarhead level. The best solution was to write a list of beliefs.

1. My beliefs are my business. 2. Practice outweighs belief. 3. G-d probably exists. 4. G-d does not write books. 5. Jesus has nothing to do with life after death. This is 25 words. Three words need to go. Line 4 states that G-d does not write books. This implies that G-d does, indeed, exist. Line 3 can be eliminated, and the answer reduced to 22 words.

America is a religious country. To many, this means Christianity. This religion is based on beliefs, rather than practices. The beliefs of Christianity tend to fall into four categories: G-d, the Bible, Jesus, and life after death. There is a lot of disagreement.

There was a comment. Christ Centered Teaching February 17, 2015 at 7:33 pm “So if your thoughts are your business, why share them here with others?” Jesus worshipers are good at arguments.

Religious themes have been used for content in Western art for centuries. Painting, music, and architecture have been devoted to images of Jesus. How many of these image makers are true believers? This is especially true in team sports like music and architecture. Is the bricklayer at the Cathedral saved? Is the gospel music keyboards man born again?

PG has used the bible as text on several occasions. He also uses public domain works by others, including Walt Whitman, William Blake, and Emily Dickinson. Just because you use a text in a graphic work does not mean that you are expressing a belief in the content.

When you take a book of poetry, and use it as a tool of authority, you compromise the beauty of that work. Maybe, by using the poetry of the Bible as text for graphic poems, some of this beauty can be restored. The Jesus worshipers can still use the magic book as a sales tool, promoting a scheme for life after death. The text has been abused for centuries.

Pictures today are from “The Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library”.

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The Night Muhammad Ali Fought In Atlanta

Posted in Georgia History, Library of Congress by chamblee54 on June 30, 2018


Many have noted that Muhammad Ali lit the Olympic torch in 1996. Few seem to remember another Atlanta appearance from the former Cassius Clay. It happened October 26, 1970, at the Municipal Auditorium. To get to this point, lets borrow a few lines from a Courier-Journal Ali Timeline.

1960 – “Clay defeats Zbigniew Pietrzykowski of Poland on Sept. 5 to win the light-heavyweight boxing gold medal at the Olympics in Rome…”

1962 – “Clay hears Elijah Muhammad speak for the first time. He meets another Nation of Islam leader, Malcolm X, who becomes a friend and adviser. – On March 9, the military draft board classifies Clay 1-A, meaning he is fit and available to be called into the Army…”

1964 -” Because of a low score on the Army intelligence test, Clay is reclassified 1-Y, not qualified for military service, in January. “I said I was The Greatest,” he explains. “I never said I was the smartest.” – Clay scores a stunning seventh-round technical knockout over 7-1 favorite Sonny Liston on Feb. 25 at the Miami Convention Center, winning the world heavyweight championship at age 22. – In response to a reporter’s question the day after the fight, Clay confirms he is a member of the Nation of Islam, saying: “I believe in Allah and in peace. … I’m not a Christian anymore. … Followers of Allah are the sweetest people in the world. They don’t tote weapons. They pray five times a day.” – A rift grows between Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X. Ali sides with Elijah, causing grief for Malcolm. – Casting off his “slave name,” Clay adopts the temporary name Cassius X. Later he announces that Elijah has bestowed on him the name Muhammad Ali. The name means “Praiseworthy One.”…”

1965 – “Ali knocks out Liston in the first round of their rematch, before only 4,280 fans in Lewiston, Maine, on May 25. Liston falls under a “phantom” punch that apparently few people see, giving rise to suspicions that he threw the fight. Former champion Joe Louis eventually declares Ali “unfit” to hold the title. – In October, former champion Floyd Patterson says: “Cassius Clay is disgracing himself and the Negro race.” On Nov. 22, Ali delivers a punishing defeat to Patterson, in part, he says, because Patterson refuses to call him Ali….”

1966 – “With the Vietnam War heating up, the Army lowers test-score standards, reclassifying Ali 1-A — fit for service. – “Man, I ain’t got no quarrel with them Viet Cong,” he says to reporters who call him at home in Miami. He later explains that “no Viet Cong ever called me nigger.” – Ali asks to be reclassified a conscientious objector to military service. A hearing officer sides with him, but the draft board keeps him 1-A, armed with a U.S. Justice Department opinion that Ali’s objections to military service are political not religious….”

1967 – “On April 28, Ali refuses induction into the Army in Houston.” “It is the light of my consciousness as a Muslim minister and my own personal convictions that I take my stand in rejecting the call to be inducted in the armed services,” Ali stated after refusing induction on April 28, 1967. “I have searched my conscience and I find I cannot be true to my belief in my religion by accepting such a call.” He was convicted of draft evasion on June 20, 1967. Ali was sentenced to five years in prison and fined $10,000, the maximum penalty for the offense. He remained free on a $5,000 bond while he appealed his conviction. Ali was also stripped of the World Heavyweight Championship by the New York State Athletic Commission and the World Boxing Association, systematically denied a boxing license in every state and stripped of his passport. “

For three and a half years, Mr. Ali was unable to fight in the ring. The WBA had a tournament, and installed their own champion. People tried to set up a fight for Mr. Ali, but were blocked by politicians, and state boxing authorities. California Governor Ronald Reagan said “That draft dodger will never fight in my state, period.” Then someone had the idea to have the fight in Atlanta.

Atlanta has never been a boxing town. There was no boxing commission. The Municipal Auditorium, the only venue that could host, was a dump. As Ring magazine tells the story: “So it was the height of irony that it was Atlanta, a city that occupied the heart of the Deep South, that provided the breakthrough. State Senator Leroy Johnson and Governor Lester Maddox helped pave the way for a most improbable return by persuading the City of Atlanta Athletic Commission to grant Ali a boxing license on Aug. 12, 1970. Shortly thereafter, it was announced Ali would fight Jerry Quarry on Oct. 26 at the City Auditorium in Atlanta. The bout was scheduled for 15 rounds, probably in recognition of Ali’s status as lineal heavyweight champion.” (Other sources say that Governor Maddox was opposed to hosting the fight, but was powerless to stop it.)

The opponent was Jerry Quarry, whose white skin was apparent that night. His obituary notes: :His most famous night was in Atlanta, Georgia, in October 1970, when he was the “fall-guy” for Ali’s comeback from his three- year exile. Quarry was stopped because of a badly cut eye in the third round. It brought him his biggest payday, $338,000. … By 1995 he was in the care of his brother James, and was suffering from severe pugilistic dementia.” Jerry Quarry died January 3, 1999.

The fight was not much of a contest. It lasted three rounds, before the referee stopped the match. Mr. Ali fought for ten more years, and regained the Heavyweight Championship twice. “On June 28, 1971, the Supreme Court unanimously overturns Ali’s 4-year-old draft conviction, saying that his claims as a conscientious objector were based on religion and were sincere.”

The fight was the occasion for a display of black pride, and black money. The New Yorker essayist George Plimpton remembered that invasion of the Harlem peacocks in their enormous purple Cadillacs: “I’d never seen crowds as fancy, especially the men – felt hatbands and feathered capes, and the stilted shoes, the heels like polished ebony, and many smoking stuff in odd meerschaum pipes.”

“The times reported that the bout was like “a page out of the roaring twenties. … The ladies had beads down to the hem of their maxi-skirts. One man wore an ankle length mink coat, with a high hat of mink to match. … Diana Ross sat in the forth row, ringside, with a bouffant, Afro-American hair-do that stretched out 10 inches on each side.” Many of those in attendance were invited to a party.

“Engraved invitations to one party in particular had been passed around to the hustlers in New York a week earlier and in Atlanta in the days leading up to the fight. The invitations announced that “Fireball” was throwing a party at 2819 Handy Drive, in Collier Heights.

The Handy Drive house happened to be one of several properties that “Chicken Man” Williams owned. He’d given a friend, an Atlantan-turned-New-Yorker known as “Fireball,” permission to use the house. He’d even helped build a craps table the week before so all the big-time gamblers who were sure to show up could “roll the bones.”

Williams’ girlfriend, Barbara Smith, skipped the fight to help prepare for the party. She and two girlfriends were busy in the kitchen when they heard the front door open. The fight was still going on, so Smith went to the front, expecting to meet an early bird. She was greeted by three men in ski masks standing in the hallway. All were armed; one was pointing a shotgun at her face. …

An estimated 80 to 200 people had arrived at the house expecting to party, only to be fleeced by masked men with shotguns. According to news accounts, the victims were led to the basement, then ordered to strip to their underwear, throw all their valuables in a pile and lay on the floor…

As more victims arrived, floor space in the basement became scarce, so the gunmen ordered the victims to lie on top of each other. Cash and jewelry was swept into pillowcases. That went on for hours as more and more people kept showing up. By 3 a.m., the half-naked victims were stacked like cordwood on top of each other.

Not one shot was fired. But as they left, the gunmen took Smith and one of her friends hostage and told everyone else to stay put. Three hours later, they dropped the women off on the other side of town and gave them $10 each for cab fare. By that time, the investigation was underway.

Creative Loafing has a terrific story about the party at Chicken Man’s house. If you have a few minutes, it is worth your time. Ditto for this newspaper story, in the sucky google books format.

A key person in the story is J.D. Hudson. One of the first eight black Atlanta policemen, Lt. Hudson was Mr. Ali’s bodyguard the night of the fight. Lt. Hudson wound up conducting the investigation of the party at Chicken Man’s house. Lt. Hudson met Gordon “Chicken Man” Williams, under rather unpleasant circumstances, in 1949.

Lt. Hudson never suspected Chicken Man of being part of the robbery. “From the time he took over the case, Hudson says, he knew Williams wasn’t responsible — even though other investigators already had pinned the crime on him. For one thing, Hudson could place Williams at the fight at the time the gunmen were at the house setting up the crime.

For another, Hudson says, “I knew [Williams] wasn’t dumb enough to pull a stunt like that. This was a man who ran [a] million-dollar operation from a pay phone on a street corner. He was smart. He could’ve run IBM or Coke. There’s no way he would’ve risked all that to pay somebody off. This was pulled off by a bunch of young thugs who were trying to knock over a party, and when they got there and saw how big it was, they improvised.”

Chicken Man went to prison in the seventies, and became a minister. He served as the Pastor of the Salem Baptist Church. Gordon Williams died December 6, 2014. J.D.Hudson died June 4, 2009. The men who robbed the party goers were killed a few months after the fight.

Pictures today are from The Library of Congress. This is a repost.

Spectrum Rather Than A Binary

Posted in Georgia History, GSU photo archive, Weekly Notes by chamblee54 on June 25, 2018

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my romantic life ~ waffle house standoff ~ Southern Poverty Law Center, Inc. Admits It Was Wrong, Apologizes to Quilliam and Maajid Nawaz for Field Guide to Anti-Muslim Extremists, and Agrees to Pay $3.375 Million Settlement ~ SPLC ~ East Cobb resident wants Confederate general’s name in Cobb park designation ~ Cobb commission meeting ~ Why it Pays to Be Hungry | Les Brown | Goalcast ~ In this tale, an investor leaves New York in a hurry, after some shady dealings and failed marriage. He goes to Atlanta, and stays with his one time protege, a prosperous Asian. The two go to Ponce City Market, the beltline, Buckhead, and other trendoid spots we all know and, if not love, at least tolerate. They talk about hedge funds, and their adventures in moving money without creating value. Finally, they part ways on uneasy terms. ~ I am an Atlanta native familiar with setting of this story It was fun to listen to even if a lot of it did not ring true It is ironic for a *asian*-we never learn what country-to say racism about a buckhead dive bar bless Barry’s heart both Barry investor and Barry ex potus ~ Louie Frank Powell Frank Powell owned the cove, and a series of other bars in atlanta. Once, I was perusing the legal notices, and saw where he was applying for a liquor license I saw that his first name was Louie Fory plus years later, I wondered what happened to him. I googled the name. Louie Frank Powell Birth – 23 Nov 1931 Westville, Holmes County, FL Death – 8 Mar 1996 (aged 64) Atlanta, GA Burial – Sweet Gum Head Church of Christ Cemetery Sweet Gum Head, Holmes County, FL The Sweet Gum Head was a show bar on Cheshire Bridge Road for several years. In 1973, Frank’s boyfriend drove his cadillac through the South wall of the Cove ~ asexuals ~ GOP senator calls child separation “current shiny object of the day” “keep the focus on President Trump’s request to Congress to cut $15 in spending.” @chamblee54 maybe .@CBS could use the $15 to hire a proofreader ~ Liza Minnelli: ‘I Do Not Approve Nor Sanction’ the Judy Garland Biopic Starring Renee Zellweger ~ where our troops are fighting “hostilities or into situations where imminent involvement in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circumstances.” ~ What’s Jesse Singal’s Fucking Deal? ~ Bahama Breeze in Orange Village calls police on black sorority over bill dispute ~ West Coast Fog radio ~ gossip in the city part one ~ xxx alleged killer ~ @realDonaldTrump “I REALLY DON’T CARE, DO U?” written on the back of Melania’s jacket, refers to the Fake News Media. Melania has learned how dishonest they are, and she truly no longer cares! ~ @Acosta FLOTUS spox confirms Mrs. Trump wore a jacket to visit border kids that reads: “I really don’t care. Do you?” Spox says: “It’s a jacket. There was no hidden message. After today’s important visit to Texas, I hope the media isn’t going to choose to focus on her wardrobe.” ~ People Are Disgusted By The Way This Woman Responded To A Wedding Caterer’s Prices ~ The Southern Poverty Law Center has lost all credibility ~ splc headline ~ root share ~ another root share ~ intellectual dark web contains no authoritarians @BretWeinstein @GlennLoury It is a stretch to say that IDW “contains no authoritarians” ~ .@jordanbpeterson sounds like an authoritarian many see authoritarianism as a spectrum rather than binary do you have authority figure to keep authoritarians out? ~ @BretWeinstein I enjoyed @GlennLoury monolog about heavy handed attempts by media-dnc team to force you to vote for HRC this was a factor in small town PA WI MI I felt same way only I was in GA and ec went DJT while you were in MA and were forced to go for HRC ~ @BretWeinstein one problem with your hypothesis is that @SenSanders was an obnoxious weak candidate that the republicans would have taken apart in the general election @GlennLoury ~ @PressSec Last night I was told by the owner of Red Hen in Lexington, VA to leave because I work for @POTUS and I politely left. Her actions say far more about her than about me. I always do my best to treat people, including those I disagree with, respectfully and will continue to do so ~ @HoarseWisperer Note: Sarah Huckabee Sanders has a personal account. It is: @SarahHuckabee She used the federal government’s account for the Press Secretary (@PressSec) to target a private business owner. ~ Help Separated children, bill number 2937 ~ S.3036 – Keep Families Together Act ~ Kellyanne Ennui ~ a weird yearning for death combined with a crushing sense of my own smallness and futility that presents as a fear of death ~ With the awakening of his emotions, his first perception was a sense of futility, a dull ache at the utter grayness of his life ~ the word racism has been trivialized by overuse demoze thought calling millions of americans racist would help elect hillary we are harvesting the fruit of that hideous strategy now this subject is emotional quicksand ~ I want to be on the side of history where false equivalency tweets/facebook posts are ignored ~ People think that Sarah Palin said that she could see Russia from her back porch. ~ drain the swamp anagrams as sin raw dp the man ~ These are the bills regarding the separation of children from their parents at the border. Help Separated children, bill number 2937 Keep Families together, bill number 3036 Sen. Perdue 404.865.0087 Sen. Isakson 770.661.0999 GA04 Rep. Johnson 770 987-2291 GA05 Rep. Lewis 404 659-0116 GA06 Rep. Handel 770 998-0049 GA07 Rep. Woodall 770 232-3005 GA11 Rep. Loudermilk 770 429-1776 When you contact these numbers, please be considerate of the person taking your call. It is not helpful to make an angry speech. Just ask them to support bill 2937 and bill 3036 Please only contact the Congressional representative from your district. ~ Instead of making noise on twitter, you could call your senator and ask them to support Help Separated children, bill number 2937, Keep Families together, bill number 3036 namecalling will accomplish NOTHING there will be opportunities to scream racism later ~ If you are concerned about the situation at the border, call your senator (Sen. Perdue 404.865.0087, Sen. Isakson 770.661.0999) Ask them to support Help Separated children, bill number 2937, and Keep Families together, bill number 3036. Please be courteous to the person taking your call. ~ Can we have a timeout on the memes, name calling, pointing out hypocrisy, and other examples of internet logic and rhetoric. We know that you are angry. We know that you are clever. There will be plenty of opportunities to scream racist later. ~ Can we have a timeout on the memes, name calling, pointing out hypocrisy, virtue signalling, and other displays of internet performance logic. We know that you are angry. We know that you are clever. There will be plenty of opportunities to scream racist later. ~ my next book – 12 Antidotes for Rules: A Life to Chaos ~ As the Baptist said to the Presbyterian, there’s a madness to my Methodist. ~ the moment when you see #andrewsullivan trending, and you wonder what the idiot has said now – andy says to give djt his wall it will be expensive, environmentally unsafe, and WILL NOT WORK but yea, let orange hair have his wall, paid for with money taken from healthcare it will make the liberals mad ~ those who talk the most listen the least ~ This was very frustrating to listen to. The race issue is a bottomless can of worms. The *good news* is that they did not discuss queers or life after death. This may be a first for jesus worshipers. @JemarTisby @williamrblack ~ @AryehCW Has anyone written a thinkpiece on why Italians are the only ethnicity it’s still okay to make fun of? @chamblee54 Southern White People Idk of that is an ethnicity, or a lack of one, but it is open game, especially if you throw in a kkk joke, in which case it is absolutely virtuous to insult us ~ One problem with the internet is distractions. If you see something you want to share, you will need to go share it. While you are there, inevitably you will look at facebook, thus putting your peace of mind at risk. Like when two facebook friends shared a vile screed. What is the proper response to this? Say something, and get into a quagmire argument. Or just ignore it, and lose respect for the two men who liked this. I don’t want to be someone who hates others because of their opinions. The article says you should speak up, when it suits them. The good news is, the next poem I found in the archive addresses this issue.
it is is not about justice – it is having an emotional experience
that validates your privilege – the person judging you
is just as messed up as you are – it is is not about salvation
it is having an emotional experience – that validates your privilege
Pictures are from “The Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library”. ~ selah

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35 Broad Street

Posted in Georgia History, GSU photo archive by chamblee54 on June 19, 2018

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PG was having a delightfully slack afternoon, The one productive activity was editing pictures from “The Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library”. In box seventy two of “corporate bodies”, in the Lane Brothers archive, there was a picture commissioned by King Road Marker Company. It displayed a brand new crosswalk, over Marietta Street at the intersection of Broad Street. The picture was taken at 1:51 p.m. September 27, 1954. This is a repost.

The time caught PG’s eye. 1:51 is one of the times used to display clocks and watches in advertising. Most ads use 10:09. This arrangement of the hour and minute hands makes a welcoming gesture. This allows the logo of the watch to be visible, and is thought to encourage the viewer to purchase the timepiece. The shadows on the buildings indicate that the picture was shot in early afternoon.

The clock with the magic time advertised the C&S national bank. The building behind the clock was the headquarters of that bank. In 1954, Citizens and Southern bank was a prime player in the Atlanta market. (PG’s dad said that C&S stood for choke’m and squeez’m.) At some point, C&S merged with NCNB to become Nationsbank, which was later absorbed by Bank Of America.

C&S kept it’s headquarters at 35 Broad Street for many years after competitors built trophy buildings. Their were constant rumors about where the C&S highrise was going to go. Finally, C&S Plaza was built at Peachtree and North Avenue, a mile north of five points. The building was to become the tallest building in America outside of New York and Chicago. During the construction of this building, C&S became part of Nationsbank, and later Bank of America.

The picture is featured in Atlanta Time Machine. The building is now owned by Georgia State University, with a BOA branch on the first floor.
The banking hall is spectacular. It was designed by Philip Shutze, before the great depression. Here is more information.
Nations Bank Building (Citizens and Southern National Bank Building, Empire Building)
35 Broad Street, NW 1901: Bruce and Morgan, Architects, NR.
Remodeling of Lower Floors and Interiors 1929:
Hentz, Adler and Shutze, Architects; Philip Shutze, Designer
Fourteen stories high, the Nations Bank Building was the first steel-frame structure to be built in Atlanta. Its clear-cut silhouette, simple fenestration, and heavily decorated terra-cotta top bear the influence of the Chicago School. In 1929 the building became the headquarters of the Citizens and Southern National Bank, which asked Philip Shutze to redesign its three lower floors. Because the impression of load-bearing masonry was regarded as better suited for a banking establishment than large glass panes were, the original display windows were replaces by classical motifs apparently “carved out” of Indiana limestone.
Philip Shutze was inspired by Italian Mannerism, and especially by the city gates of Verona by Michele Sanmichelo (1484-1559) … Reached from Marietta and Walton streets through lofty arcaded entryways and a more intimate elevator lobby in the early Renaissance style on Broad Street, the banking hall is a long nave articulated by colossal Corinthian pilasters. While its walls and floors feature several kinds of Georgia, Tennessee, and European marbles in a warm gold-brown color scheme, the ceiling, from which hang gigantic chandeliers, is left bare. The Pantheon, which Shutze had measured during his internship at the American Academy in Rome, served as direct source for the pedimented niches, and for the floors with alternate square and circular patterns. Also, of Roman inspiration are the bronze desks and the eagle motif found throughout the design.

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Chavius Hollis And Joseph Villanueva

Posted in Georgia History, Killed By Police, Library of Congress by chamblee54 on June 17, 2018


<bChavius Hollis and Joseph Villanueva were killed by police in Georgia this week. Here are the stories. While public attention is focused on a few sensational cases, incidents like these two make up the majority of officer involved shootings. Fathers day pictures are from The Library of Congress.

“On Tuesday, June 12, 2018 … an officer involved shooting that resulted in the death of Chavius Hollis, age 26. … at 11:08 AM, Walton County deputies received a 911 call from 3775 Lovers Lane, Monroe, GA, reporting a disturbance by a family member with a gun. He was also reportedly exhibiting erratic behavior. When deputies arrived, a family member and multiple deputies entered the home. The family member was present in an attempt to calm Hollis down. During the encounter, Hollis raised his gun, discharging the firearm and striking the family member. Subsequently, one deputy fired shots, striking Hollis. He died at the scene. … Hollis’ family member sustained a gunshot wound to the leg and is being treated for his injuries. He is expected to recover. “

“On Thursday, June 14, 2018 … a 911 call was made … at approximately 6:40 AM. The caller indicated a Hispanic Male was walking in the area of Ridgeway Drive armed with a handgun. Deputies responded to Ridgeway Drive where one deputy encountered a Hispanic Male subject walking between mobile homes. The subject showed the deputy his gun. The deputy attempted to make contact with the subject but he ran. The subject ran up a hill and encountered a second deputy and charged towards this deputy with his gun pointed at him. Deputies fired at the subject and hit him multiple times. The subject died at the scene. The subject was identified as Joseph Villanueva, 29, from California. Villanueva will be transported to the GBI Medical Examiner’s Office for an autopsy which is scheduled for Friday, June 15, 2018. Evidence indicates that Villanueva fired his gun during this incident.” Ridgeway Drive is in Hall County, Gainesville GA.

45 Rules For Life

Posted in Commodity Wisdom, Georgia History, GSU photo archive by chamblee54 on June 15, 2018









This post was published on June 15, 2010. The last eight years have seen a few changes, and a few things that are the same. The post is a list of rules for life. It was inspired by a lady, Regina Brett. She is still alive, and cranking out text. That she is still alive is noteworthy, since the chain e-mail said she was 90 years old. Chain e-mail is something we don’t see much of these days.
01- Fair is when a baseball is hit between first and third base. Sometimes it is a tough call.
02- When in Georgia, just take a drink.
03- Life is too hateful to waste time on religion.

04- Family and friends might help, your job might help, insurance might pay the bills,
and the government might bail out the insurance company.
05- Interest on credit card debt is a bad investment.
06- Only argue when it is worthwhile. Don’t argue just to have fun. Better yet, don’t argue.
07- Cry because you are happy.
08- Getting angry with G-d is like getting angry with standard time.
09- You don’t have to spend all your money at once.
Save a bit now and then, and think of a reason later.

10- The sugar and chemicals in commercial chocolate covers up most of the taste.
11- Make pizza with your pasta so it wont screw up your salad.
12- It’s OK to let your children see you watch TV.
13- There once was a band called Journey. They played corporate rock, and made lots of money.
14- There was a TV game show, “I’ve Got A Secret”. It did not relate to anything.
15- If you turn your back on G-d, she will still be looking you in the eyes.
16- Take a deep mind, it calms the breath. If that fails, use mouthwash.

17- Politicians, like diapers, should be changed frequently.
18- Some sayings should be outlawed. They have been used too much, and no longer mean anything.
19- The trouble is, some people are on the third and fourth childhood.
20- Is the pleasure something gives you, worth the pain it causes your neighbor?
21- Burn the fancy lingerie and wear the candles. One size fits all.
22- A river goes with the flow without preparation. The water is still polluted.
23- If you have to ask permission, you probably don’t need to.

24- Elbows, armpits, and neck scruff disagree with claims made about the brain.
25- If you charge your happiness, pay the bill at the end of the month.
26- Your reaction to a disaster cannot wait five years. Act now, using the best judgment you have.
27- Cheerios taste better than Life cereal, and People magazine has better pictures than Life.
28- Christians: the more they talk about forgiveness the less they practice it.
29- If you don’t want someone to hear what you say, keep your voice down.

30- Time wounds all heels. This is especially true in North Carolina.
31- There was a man from Mississippi, who went to New Orleans.
He took a ten dollar bill and a white shirt. He did not change either one.
32- Mr. Roebuck did not take his partner Sears-iously.
33- The middle three letters of the word Believe is LIE.
34- G-d is a neutral. She loves and hates in equal measure.
35- Show up, Stay awake, and don’t kill anybody.

36- If youth is wasted on the young, is maturity wasted on the mature?
37- When you make a list like this, don’t worry about contradicting yourself.
38- The hokey pokey really is what it’s all about.
39- Never wrestle with an pig. You will get dirty, and the pig will enjoy it.
40- Be careful when you ask for something, you might get it.
41- A man thought he was green with envy once. It was really gangrene.

42- The pest is yet to come, but she will go away later.
43- Put your pants on one leg at a time, and put on a dress the same way.
44- Smile, and people will wonder what you are up to.
45- Use spell check, and try to use correct grammar. You will sound smarter than you are.
That is embarrassing. Some of those are worthwhile thoughts. Some are just plain stupid. The commodity wisdom racket is tougher than ever. Pictures today are from “The Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library”.









Jordan Peterson

Posted in Georgia History, Library of Congress, Undogegorized by chamblee54 on June 13, 2018


Jordan Bernt Peterson has become quite the public nuisance recently. He performed at a theater downtown Tuesday night. I did not attend. YouTube has a video of a show he did Saturday night, in San Francisco. It is probably similar to the Atlanta show. The performance is loosely based on the book, 12 Rules for Life: An Antidote to Chaos.

This report is starting at forty minutes in. JBP is 3 rules into his show, out of 12. JBP says that you should only be around people who support you as a human being. This does not account for instances where you have to be around jerks to keep your job, or because they are in your family. Some of these rules for living are going to be easy to pay lip service to, but tough to actually follow. But, if you are attending the JBP show because you want to make a better person out of yourself… as JBP flatters his followers by saying … then a few inconsistencies are going to be easy to explain away. If nothing else, you just make jokes about the left, which also helps make you a better person.

JBP was talking about the advantages of having a regular sleep schedule, which has never been an issue for me. Meanwhile, I was googling to see what the B stood for. When you type in Jordan Peterson to google, the first thing to come up is sophistry. This is a word a lot of people use to describe this act. Another is “the stupid person’s smart person.” JBP is an example of what Marshall McLuhan meant when he said the medium is the message. A painfully learned man, speaking to you, in polysyllabic bursts, is teaching you how to be a better person. The specific things that he says are beside the point. BTW, the B stands for Bernt, like toast. JBP was born in 1962, in Edmonton, Ontario. He is as Canadian as Hockey, and driving to Florida on I75. June 12 is his birthday.

At 57 minutes, JBP is talking about sleeping, and eating. “What stupid things am I doing that is making my life wretched?” I am tempted to say it is listening to this video, and to motivational speakers in general. However, if I did this, I could not complete this report. I would have to talk about how DJT is screwing up the world, with the profitable assistance of the Democratic party. I could blather about racism. I could look at facebook, and see why my neighbor’s knickers are in a twist. Maybe JBP isn’t so bad after all.

@ggreenwald “Beyond the fact that she treats her audience like 8-year-olds – repeating the same banal points 5 times in increasingly dramatic fashion to make sure they retain it & believe it’s earth-shattering – she’s now the most militaristic, and the most conspiratorial, commentator on TV:” Does it really matter which blow dried talking head this is? The medium is the message. One rule of public speaking is to treat children as though they were adults, and adults as though they were children. It doesn’t matter what the suit on the stage is saying. He is talking, you are sitting quietly in your chair, hopefully your phone is in your pocket, maybe having naughty fun with the vibrate mode, and this is all going to make you a better person.

The next rule is to not let your children do anything that will make other people not like them. This is very, very important, and must be done by the age of four. JBP does not offer many specific tactics for this battle, but spends a lot of time talking about the overall strategy. It should be noted at this point that some people will say that I don’t understand what JBP is saying. This may be true. Or, it could be that I understand it too well. This is true of all criticism. If you say something negative about a leader, to a follower, the follower will say that you don’t understand the message. Maybe the medium is the problem. If the medium were well done, things would taste better.

Rule six is to put your house in order before you criticize the world. Physician heal thyself. On the surface, this is a good rule. Hypocrisy is always a handy argument when someone is generous with their opinions. In a do-as-I-say-not-as-I-do world, rule six will get a lot of praise. What blather will JBP illustrate this point with? One might be to save your document, before going back to listening. The redo post is never as good as the one that was lost because you forgot to save your work.

Save is a curious word to use at this point. As you quickly learn, JBP gives you a rule, and then says *stuff*… lots and lots of it … that has little to do with that rule. When the message was paused at 1:22, JBP was talking about creating heaven, and avoiding hell. If you don’t believe hell is real, then you are not paying attention. This is very different from the Christian message about hell, and how Jesus died on the cross… Maybe, hell is sitting in an uncomfortable chair, in a crowded tabernacle, listening to a well paid performer make a better person out of you. At least with YouTube you can pause whenever you need more coffee, or to excrete the coffee already consumed.

Rule eight is not to lie. This is similar to the ninth commandment, and just as liberally interpreted. When the wonder box was paused in self defense at 1:34:01, JBP was railing about the arrogance of using the language to deceive people. There are lots of pithy sentences strewn throughout this monologue, which, as we speak, are already appearing in facebook memes.

At 1:40, JBP says “thats all I have to say about that,” and leaves the stage. The emcee, possibly Dave Rubin, comes on, and tells people to think about what they have heard for the last TWO HOURS. This is after 100 minutes, the first ten minutes being the introduction. Maybe the truth telling rule does not apply here. “And think about what was on CNN for the last two hours… aplause and laughter … Wolf Blitzer talking about porn stars. We’re winning. ” The Atlanta show was less than a quarter mile away from CNN headquarters.

The next part of the show is Q&A. @RubinReport sits in one comfy chair, @jordanbpeterson sits in the other. We interrupt our regularly scheduled snark to bring you a pro JBP comment David Joshua Rubin, the sidekick of the Atlanta and San Francisco shows, tweeted this today: @RubinReport Hi, I’m Dave. I’m married to a dude and I eat chicken sandwiches whenever I want.” DJR is a gay Jew, and is matter of fact about both. We are into another level of gay assimilation, where an Intellectual Dark Web® member can be casually queer. The JBP show, whatever its shortcomings, seems to be free of anti-gay nonsense. Some radicals will not approve of the CFA eating assimilation. We now return to your regularly scheduled snark.

During the Q&A, JBP got onto Bill Maher, and the gratuitous, over the top, Trump bashing that went on back stage. JBP thought it was boring and stupid, and, for once, I agree. People are getting tired of the non-stop Trump hating, and it is creating a backlash. Actually, a lot of what JBP says is worthwhile, but you have to wonder how many of his followers actually do tell the truth. Maybe, with 10 minutes to go in the video, this is a good time to wrap up this report. Pictures are from The Library of Congress. Russell Lee was the photographer. The location was Texas, in February 1939. The spell check suggestions for JBP are JAP and BP.

Two Hundred Yards Behind

Posted in Georgia History, Library of Congress by chamblee54 on June 12, 2018

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In 1985, PG went to work for Shaky Blueprints. The real name was a Japanese word that nobody knew how to spell. Two of the previous hires were an athletic young lady, and a fat man. Until better nicknames arrive, we will call them AYL and FM for this story.

AYL was trying to get FM to go jogging with her after work. This was an ongoing conversation, with FM always turning her down. One afternoon, PG wore an old pair of jogging shoes to work, and said that he would go running with AYL.

Shaky was just off highway 400, in what is now part of Sandy Springs. There was a road leading away from it. The road went over the highway, and went in a wooded semi circle for a couple of miles. The plan was to go on this loop, and take sidewalks on Roswell Road back to Shaky.

At one time, PG went running every day. He was out of the habit by this time, and always a slow runner. When the work day was over, PG tied his glasses on with a rubber band, did a few stretches, and was ready to take on the course.

AYL and PG left the parking lot, and started up the road. PG trudged along with his head down. When he got to the bridge over the highway, PG looked up. AYL had taken off like greased lightning, and was already two hundred yards ahead. PG hollered for her to slow down, and finished the course.

Pictures for this repost are from The Library of Congress. Picture #06662 is from “Second International Pageant of Pulchritude and Eighth Annual Bathing Girl Revue, May 21, 22, 23, 1927, Galveston TX.” Have a happy Tuesday.

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Mrs. Dora Stainers

Posted in Georgia History, Library of Congress by chamblee54 on June 8, 2018





Some pictures have longer captions than others. Shorpy published one with a mouthful.

Mrs. Dora Stainers, 562 1/2 Decatur St. 39 years old. Began spinning in an Atlanta mill at 7 years, and is in this mill work for 32 years. Only 4 days of schooling in her life. Began at 20 cents a day. The most she ever made was $1.75 a day & now she is earning $1 a day when she works. She is looking for a job. Her little girl Lilie is the same age she was when she started work, but the mother says, “I ain’t goin to put her to work if I can help it. I’m goin’ to give her as much education as I can so she can do better than I did.” Mrs. Stainers is a woman of exceptional ability considering her training. In contrast to her is another woman (this name was withheld) who has been working in Atlanta mills for 10 yrs. She began at 10 yrs. of age, married at 12, broke down, and may never be able to work again. Her mother went to work in the cotton mill very young. Location: Atlanta, Georgia.

The photographs of Mrs. Stainers were made in March, 1915. The photographer was Lewis Wickes Hine.
“Working as an investigative photographer for the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC), Lewis Hine (1874-1940) documented working and living conditions of children in the United States between 1908 and 1924.” “In 1954 the Library received the records of the National Child Labor Committee, including approximately 5,000 photographs and 350 negatives by Lewis Hine. In giving the collection to the Library, the NCLC stipulated that “There will be no restrictions of any kind on your use of the Hine photographic material.”
The house that Mrs. Stainer lived in is long gone. 562 1/2 Decatur Street is across the railroad tracks from the Fulton Cotton Mill. With real estate agents demanding names for all neighborhoods, the area is known as the Old Fourth Ward. The building at 552 Decatur Street is A & R Welding.

Pictures are from The Library of Congress. This is a repost.







Midtown

Posted in Georgia History, GSU photo archive by chamblee54 on June 6, 2018

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The neighborhood along Peachtree Road has always been a great place to be a freak. For a long time it didn’t have a name. It is north of downtown, between Piedmont Park and Georgia Tech. Sometime in the early eighties, people started to call it Midtown, and the name stuck.

In the time after the War Between the States, this area was a shantytown called “Tight Squeeze”. It evolved into a pleasant middle class area. In the sixties, hippies took over. The area was known as the strip, or tight squeeze. Many stories could be told.

After the flower children moved on, the area went into decline. Gays started to move in, with the battle cry “Give us our rights or we will remodel your house.” Developers, worshiping the triune G-d of location, location, location, began to smell money. The neighborhood became trendy, then expensive, then more expensive. The freaks with money remain. This is a repost. Pictures are from “The Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library”.

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There is a nifty webcam up now. It shows the progress of a high rise going up now at 12th and Peachtree in midtown. The location of the camera itself is not certain, with the speculation centering on 999 Peachtree, two blocks south on Tenth Street.

A glance at the image reveals a curve in the road, between the two glass boxes under construction. Atlanta does not have wide, straight boulevards extending to the horizon. It is said that Atlanta did not build roads, but paved the cow paths.

People of a certain age will remember this area as the strip. The tenth street district was a neighborhood shopping area, up until the mid sixties. At some point, the old businesses started to move out and the hippies moved in. For a while, it was a festive party. Soon enough reality returned, and the area went into a crime filled decline.

The 999 complex is the neighborhood story in a nutshell. Before 1985, it was a block of small businesses. There was a hardware store, with the peace symbol set in tiles in the sidewalk. On Juniper Street stood the Langdon Court Apartments. They were named for PG’s great uncle Langdon Quin. Ru Paul used to stay there. He would sit out on a balcony, and wave to the traffic going by.

Across the street was a chinese restaurant, the House of Eng. A staircase on the side led to the Suzy Wong Lounge. Behind the building was an apartment building. It was one of the residences of Margaret Mitchell, while she wrote “Gone With The Wind”. She called it “the dump”, which was fairly accurate. The museum on that site would have amazed her.

PG went to the House of Eng for lunch one day in 1985. He noticed that he was the only customer in the house, at 12:30 pm on a weekday. After finishing his lunch, PG knew why.

At some point, it was decided to build a high rise there. Heery was one of the equity partners, along with a law firm and an ad agency. The building was designed by Heery (duh).The ad agency folded before the building opened, followed within a couple of years by the law firm. Heery was sold to a British company. PG does not know who owns 999 Peachtree now.

This is a repost, with pictures from “The Special Collections and Archives, Georgia State University Library”. The building, at 12th and Peachtree, is finished.





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The Battle Of Fair Street Bottom

Posted in Georgia History, Library of Congress by chamblee54 on June 5, 2018


Stacey Abrams appeared on Democracy Now. “So, I was a student at Spelman. I was a freshman. It was 1992, April. And Spelman College, the Atlanta University Center (AUC,) which is a consortium of black colleges, used to sit right outside some of the oldest housing developments in Georgia. And so, after the Rodney King verdict was announced, there were riots in Los Angeles, but there were also small riots in Georgia, including in that area. The reaction from the mayor was to actually cordon off that entire community, both the universities and the housing developments and then surrounding neighborhoods. And then they tear-gassed us. I was very irate, and I organized a group of students at my college to call the television stations, who were misreporting what was happening. At a certain point, they asked who was calling, because we were tying up their phone lines. And I just told my friends, “Tell them you’re me.”

So, Stacey Abrams was calling multiple lines in multiple television stations.Eventually, the television stations decided to do a simulcast, bringing everyone together—and I was invited as the person who was one of the rabble-rousers—to come and talk to the leadership of Atlanta about what had happened and about why we were angry, about why young people were outraged. We weren’t rioting at the school, but we understood those who were angry and who felt oppressed and felt ignored. I communicated that, and at this event, Maynard Jackson was there. He disagreed with me, disagreed with my characterization of the city’s overreaction. And I told him he wasn’t doing enough for young people. He won the argument, because he was better prepared.”

PG was in the Healy Building on April 30, 1992. He was just happy to get home in one piece that day, and did not watch any news reports. He vaguely recalls hearing something about an incident at AUC. After PG heard this statement by Miss Abrams, hew went to Mr. Google for information. There are at least two versions of that incident, which more or less tell the story. One is the Atlanta Voice, LOOKING BACK: ‘No Justice, No Peace’: The battle of Fair Street Bottom, 20 plus years later. Another is a lawsuit filed by the owners of a neighborhood grocery store, Park v. City of Atlanta.

After the Rodney King verdict, in California, students at AUC led a march from the school to downtown. At some point, the march degenerated into a riot. A grocery store on Fair Street was looted. Police were called in, and tear gas was used.

The Atlanta Voice “The Korean-owned grocery store located in Atlanta’s Fair Street Bottom closed early in anticipation of trouble. And like storm clouds on the horizon trouble showed up as expected. The garage-style steel door, typical of many small businesses in economically depressed communities around the nation, however, was not enough to stop the looters from breaking the lock and prying the door up just enough to crawl under and loot the establishment. The wife of the owner pleaded with Atlanta Police who were clad in riot gear as they stood quietly by and watched. No officer responded to her crying plead to stop the looters. The officers had more important orders: Don’t let the looters go into downtown; keep them in the Bottom. The police finally dispersed the looters with tear gas after they tried to set fire to the building. The liquor store next to the 5 Star Grocery was protected from the looters. This contained riot wasn’t going to be fuel by alcohol. …

Twenty-six years ago, Fair Street Bottom was located in the heart of one of Atlanta’s notorious neighborhoods just east of the Atlanta University Center. It was called the Bottom because Fair Street running east to west from Northside Drive dips downwards before it levels off again as it passes Clark Atlanta University and Morehouse College. The Bottom was in the heart of one of the city’s oldest public housing communities – John Hope Homes. With walking distance to the west near Spelman College was another housing project – University Homes. Fenced in green lots now occupy the space with John Hope Homes once sat. They were torn down in the 1990s as part of the Atlanta Housing Authority’s massive plan to re-invent public housing. University Homes was torn down and re-built into a mixed-income housing complex. Most of Atlanta missed the “Battle of Fair Street Bottom” unless they read or watch the news. The distance never spread beyond those few blocks …

I don’t remember where the phone call came from, but we were informed that some of the marchers were causing damage as they were marching back to the campus. Unfortunate for the marchers some of the young men and high school students joined the march as they passed through John Hope Homes. … By the time, I got to the Atlanta University Center, the student organizers had lost control of the march. Those marches who had a taste of destruction downtown were hell-bent on continuing. The Korean-owned 5 Star Supermarket became the focus of the headless mob, as did a few park police cars that were either turned over or set on fire. After a few hours, and quite a bit of tear gas, the Atlanta Police quelled the disturbance before nightfall. Students retreated back to their dorms and the young looters retreated back to their neighborhoods.”

The legal opinion “This action stems from one of the despicable acts of mob violence which occurred in the tumult of the riots in Atlanta, Georgia, in the wake of the Rodney King verdict… On April 29, 1992, … students from the Atlanta University Center began an impromptu march to the Richard B. Russell Federal Building and then to the State Capitol Building. The first day’s demonstrations ended at the State Capitol after 2 a.m. The students, presumably tired but clearly still agitated, returned to the Atlanta University Center.

The businesses of the Plaintiffs were to become a focus of the disorder on the second day of the riots. Sang S. Park and Hi Soon Park owned and operated Five Star Supermarket, a grocery business located at 653 Fair Street, S.W., Atlanta, Georgia. Plaintiffs Kwang Jun No and Jin Soon No owned and operated Star Liquor Store, a package store located next door at 661 Fair Street, S.W. Both Korean-American-owned businesses were located in a small commercial area in the immediate vicinity of four historically black universities: Clark Atlanta University, Spelman College, Morehouse College and Morris Brown College (“the Atlanta University Center”). Plaintiffs’ stores were the only non-black-owned businesses within that area.

In the afternoon of April 30, 1992, a group of students swarmed off the campuses of the Atlanta University Center. A segment of the crowd headed to the downtown business district, where they looted and attacked white pedestrians. A gang of students stopped to shout racial epithets and break the windows of both the Five Star Supermarket and the Five Star Liquor Store. Glenn Park, who is the son of Plaintiffs, was working at the store; he relayed these events to a police officer.

On the following day around 1:30 or 2:00 p.m., students at the Atlanta University Center began to throw projectiles from windows of a dormitory at the corner of Brawley Avenue and Fair Street, which is located about three blocks from Plaintiffs’ stores. A police S.W.A.T. team used tear gas to disperse these students. … The Plaintiffs decided to close their stores and congregate in an upstairs apartment within the Five Star Supermarket as nearby police officers observed. … By 6:45 p.m., … members of the crowd began throwing rocks and breaking into Five Star Liquor Store. From his position in the police helicopter, Officer S.F. Patterson advised other officers over TAC I radio that approximately fifty to seventy-five students were vandalizing a small business at Elm and Fair.

… the dispatcher reported a call originating from around the Fair and Roach intersection indicating that about fifty college students were assaulting a subject there at 6:45 p.m. During the next ten to twenty minutes, the mob gained entry to the liquor store, removed cases of alcoholic beverages, and broke into the supermarket. Around 7:15 p.m., a dispatcher actually called the Plaintiffs at the request of Major Mock and Chief Bell in order to advise them to remain out of sight of the crowd below. Within minutes of the last phone conversation with 911, the mob discovered Plaintiffs and chased them onto the roof of the grocery store … Plaintiffs barricaded the door onto the roof, but were assaulted by the crowd on the street who threw bricks, rocks, stones, and items stolen from their own store, hitting Mrs. Park, and shouted racial epithets at the Plaintiffs. …

On May 4, 1992, Mayor Jackson and Chief Bell participated in another press conference in which they addressed the previous days’ events and apologized to the Korean community, but also emphasized how none of the Atlanta University students were injured. Mayor Jackson also recognized the black community’s long-standing resentment of the Korean business community and recommended that a symbolic gesture be taken such as a collection for the destroyed businesses.”

Former Atlanta Police Chief Eldrin Bell has another perspective. “Bell was out of town the first night riots erupted in Atlanta on April 30, 1992. He said more than 20 police officers were injured that day when he got a call from the Mayor. “First thing I heard was Mayor Maynard Jackson’s voice in my ear saying ‘they’re tearing up your town,'” … he called the FBI who flew him back to Atlanta. He arrived the next day on May 1, 1992 at around lunch time at took charge of handling the riots. He did not want to repeat what happened the day before when officers confronted protestors face to face. “I am not a proponent of those confrontations, police versus the community.” Bell said he ordered officers out of the riot zone while he went up in a helicopter along with the Georgia State Patrol and flew over the protestors and dropped tear gas to disperse the crowd. “And I pointed out the places that I wanted him to tear gas, There was no one for them to throw the tear gas back to because the police weren’t there.” By 10PM that night the crowd dispersed, the riots ended, and the city began cleaning up.”

Pictures today are from The Library of Congress.